Surgical drills are used to lift the skull flap and remove the skull base bone, thereby exposing the underlying neurovascular structure and promoting bone decompression and instrumentation during spinal surgery. The drill bit can be manual or electric. Turn the switch on by manual or electric control. A perforator or acorn bit is used to create an initial hole for the skull. Use a continuous flush when using a surgical saw to prevent bone dust from clogging the drill bit. For fine drilling close to the vicinity of the neurovascular structure, finer drill bits, including coarse and fine drill bits, must be used to avoid errors.
During the drilling of the implant site, the mechanical working energy is converted into heat, which causes the temperature of the surrounding bone to rise instantaneously, damaging the surrounding flesh.
Therefore, the interface of the bone drill with sterile saline is to prevent excessive heat generation from the bone during the implant site. At the same time, the bone fragments in the osteotomy are eliminated, and the friction during the drilling process is reduced, thereby helping to reduce heat generation. And the medical cotton should be kept away from the high speed drill bit to prevent them from being caught and causing unnecessary movement of the drill bit and damage to surrounding structures.
The surgical drill bit is a precision instrument that can accommodate a variety of drill bits and is designed to drill the bone to a certain diameter and depth depending on the size of the implant to be placed. Divide them into four groups according to different functions.
- Twist bit: the bit adjusts the diameter and depth of the implant housing.
- Pilot drill: drill deepens and guides the drilling sequence.
- Directional drill: a double diameter drill bit for guiding a drill bit with a diameter of ø 2.80 mm.
- Long drill: a pointed drill used to break the cortical bone.